To find out the incidence of malignancy in patient with solitary thyroid nodule, this cross-sectional study was carried out in Otolaryngology & Head-Neck Surgery department of Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital (SSMC & MH) and Bangabondhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka; from July 2012 to December 2013. In this study mean age of the subjects was 35.6 ± 13.54 years and the highest frequency (38%) was within 21-30 years with female predominance (78%). Thyroid swelling was the common presentation in all (100%) cases. Some patients also presented with other symptoms like cervical lymphadenopathy (13%), dysphagia (1%), dyspnoea (1%), hoarseness of voice (1%). In this study, solitary thyroid nodules constituted 73% firm, 6% hard and 11% cystic. Malignancy rate (72.22%) was higher in firm nodule. Functional status of nodules was categorized by isotope scanning of the thyroid gland, which showed (96%) cold, (4%) warm and no any hot nodules. In the study out of 96 cold nodular goiters, 18.75 % were malignant and out of 89 solid nodule 80.89% were benign and 19.10% malignant, also out of 11 cystic nodules 90.9% were benign and 9.1% malignant. It is noticeable in the study that malignancy is significantly higher (p<0.001) in solid than cystic nodule. Histopathological findings showed, among the subjects, 54% were nodular goiter and 2 % thyroiditis in non-neoplastic lesion, and in neoplastic lesion 26% was benign (follicular adenoma) and 18% malignant. Among the malignants, 83.33% were papillary carcinoma, 11.11% follicular carcinoma and 5.55% carcinoma were medullary. Thus, papillary carcinoma was more common among all solitary thyroid nodular malignancies.
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